Medical References



  1. Sprung DJ. Do anticholinergic medications really pose a higher risk for adverse effects in irritable bowel syndrome patients over the age of 65? A community based study. Gastroentorology 2011; 140(5):S-359.
  2. UNC School of Medicine. Educational GI Handouts: IBS in Women. Stable URL: http:/
  3. IFFGD (International Foundation for Gastrointestinal Disorders) “Gynecological Aspects of Irritable Bowel Syndrome” About IBS Website. Stable URL:
  4. Chao, C H et al. Increased subsequent risk of erectile dysfunction in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a nationwide population-based cohort study. Andrology 2013. Stable URL:;jsessionid=4BE2E9BB3CAB74F3268813E69EB29B8E.f02t01
  5. SMSNA (Sexual Medicine Society of North America) “IBS and Erectile Dysfunction Risk” Stable URL: